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Posts Tagged ‘military’

50 facts that should change the world

Thursday, February 5th, 2009

By Jessica Williams

learningAt the risk of sounding sensationalist…did you know that a third of the world is at war, 30 million people in Africa are HIV positive and more than 150 countries use torture.

The facts and information provided in this book is often missed, glossed over or hidden by government and the media. So to continue: cars kill 2 people every minute, landmines kill or maim a person every hour…

You can join our library and get books and DVDs out for Free!

DRUGS: Nobody’s is winning the war

Tuesday, October 10th, 2006

Phoebe Borwick and Amy Donohue

opium poppiesThe trade behind cocaine (or coca, as the plant of origin is known) and heroin (which comes from opium poppies) is a global issue. An estimated four million people depend on income derived from the cultivation of illicit drug crops. In the year 2000, the global drug trade was estimated at a value of US$400 billion. It’s an issue worth more than the price of feeding the planet over the same period of time.

From the rainforests of South America to the remotest parts of Afghanistan to Pete Doherty’s honker, we trace the journey of the most profitable crops in the world.

From the dark ages…
Way back when we were still running around with leaves covering our lower regions, South Americans chewed the leaf of the coca plant. Often incorrectly considered a narcotic, cocaine is actually a stimulant and when chewed suppresses hunger, while increasing strength and energy.

Cue the Spaniards arriving in South America and branding coca a plant that the devil invented for the total destruction of the natives’. Or, that’s what one prominent Catholic artist declared.
They changed their minds a bit when they discovered it really did stimulate quite nicely thus legalising it and charging a nifty little tax for their own economic benefit. For a time, coca was even the main source of income for the Roman Catholic Church. Sneaky, sneaky!

…to today…
Ironically, the two most fatal drugs are still legal today and taxed to the hilt by governments around the world. Alcohol and tobacco kill more people than illicit drugs every year and are both widely accepted and available.

The very fact that other drugs are illegal increases the profit to be made. With criminals running the show, the prices skyrocket.

…to leafy fields…
Cocaine is an economical crop for farmers not only because of its high selling cost and ever-present demand, but its quick maturation period. Within one to two years of planting the seed, the coca plant’s leaves will be ready to harvest with a drying period of only six hours. And opium poppies have an even quicker yield.

…to environmental destruction…
More than 30 years ago, the US came up with the superhero tactic to rid the world, and especially their own country (where the demand was coming from), of the evil empire of narcotics. They called it the War on Drugs.
george bush
The most widespread method of destroying the coca plant in the 90s, and the opium poppy still today, was to manually pull up every single plant in a field. Time consuming and tiring, there must have been an easier way?

Consequently, air eradication with herbicides became rather popular. In as little as ten days after spraying, the plants are stripped bare of their leaves and within around 70 days, the plant will be completely dead. RIP, indeed. US-sponsored Plan Colombia was, to effect, an aerial fumigation of this country — the second most ecologically diverse in the world. Spraying caused poisoning and environmental damage.

Herbicides have been linked to diarrhoea, hair loss and skin rashes on children. Also, legal crops like bananas, coffee and pineapples are often destroyed along with the coca plant. Yes, we have no bananas. Not quite the lycra and rippling muscles the US had envisaged. In Afghanistan, post the US-led invasion, local and international troops are enlisted in eradicating poppy crops — as are schoolchildren in some provinces. This is dangerous work.

Imagine you’re a farmer who’s invested cash and time in a poppy field. How would you feel if you saw it being literally stamped out? Might make you want to protect your only chance of making a living. Where’s that gun that’s been lying around since the war? Further problems arise as more coca plants and poppies are eradicated. Demand for the drug remains constant (or grows) while there are fewer crops, resulting in the existing crops becoming more lucrative. More farmers then begin to grow the plant to take advantage of the price increase. What a conundrum!

…to poverty…
With secrecy comes vulnerability and international drug rings are not covered by fair trade agreements. Globalisation of the drug trade has led to even greater exploitation of the crop farmers along with cheaper and easier international trafficking. The globalisation of the drug trade forms a connection between organised crime, small arms, terrorism, human trafficking and all kinds of criminal and seedy life.

In 1999, nearly 80 per cent of opium cultivation took place in Afghanistan. Chances are, a gram of coke purchased in the US, Europe or New Zealand comes from a coca bush grown in the Andean countries. In fact, Bolivia, Colombia and Peru account for more than 98 per cent of the world supply. Already in poverty, working with poor soil and unempowered to change their circumstances — not to mention the influence of drug lords and anti-government groups — farmers often have no choice if they want to keep food on the table.

Yet, the War on Drugs is not being won. The US’ efforts to strip Latin America and Afghanistan of their coca and poppy crops are also stripping the livelihood of millions. While thrill-seekers in the west demand the drugs, and their governments react by trying to stop the supply, farmers will continue to grow the illicit crops unless they are offered a real alternative way to make a living.

….to terrorism…

Yes, that’s right. Terrorism. Stop or they’ll shoot (up). The links between terrorism, drugs and war are extensive and very real. In 2001, just weeks before two planes barrelled into the Twin Towers, the US pledged a further $1.5m to plump out the reported $140m in ‘humanitarian’ aid it sent to Afghanistan. Why?

Because western methods of enforcing drug cultivation laws proved ineffective, but groups with violent means available to them could whip out grenades and guns willy nilly, without a thought for morality. The Taliban was limiting drug production by threatening to shoot farmers of illicit crops. Thus, they were held in high American esteem until everything went to custard on September 11.

But the corruption ran deeper. After the attacks, the Taliban turned tail to force farmers to grow the poppies. They, and other anti-government organisations, act as trafficking middlemen and a defence force, making profit out of the trade and protecting drug smugglers with weaponry and vehicles.

Still wanna get high, butterfly?
So, you still down with shovelling that candy up your nose this Friday? Are you quite content to continue your involvement with one of the world’s deadliest industries? You don’t need to rent Traffic, Requiem for a Dream or Maria Full of Grace to understand the true repercussions of your habit on the developing countries of the world. And if you still don’t get it, then you must be wasted. Go blow your nose and have an OJ.


Afghanistan country profile
Colombia country profile
Drugs: an overview
Drug Policy Alliance is America’s leading organisation working to end the war on drugs.
The worldwide collective of committed scholar-activists at Transnational Institute
Illegal Drugs: Scourge or Globalization’s Great Equalizer? by Baylen J. Linnekin

This article was originally published in Tearaway magazine as part of the Global Focus project.

Profile of a pacific political prisoner

Wednesday, October 5th, 2005

Cameron Walker

Imagine being thrown in a filthy prison, where your cell mates mysteriously disappear’ overnight, just for waving your country’s flag. For many years this was a reality for my West Papuan friend Fransiskus Kandam.

To understand Fransiskus’ intriguing story it helps to know a little bit about the tragic story of his homeland, West Papua.

West Papua is the western half of the island of New Guinea (Papua New Guinea is the eastern half). The Dutch formally colonised West Papua in the nineteenth century. In the early 1960s they decided it was time for Papua to become an independent country, free to rule itself.

But in 1962, the Indonesian military invaded West Papua, seeking to claim it as part of Indonesia. The United Nations said Indonesia had to hold a vote to see if the Papuan people wanted to join Indonesia or become independent. West Papuans who supported independence were ruthlessly repressed by the Indonesian military. For example, in the village of Ifar Besar, 300 Papuan independence supporters were murdered. Papuans complained to UN officials, journalists and diplomats about how the military was treating them. An armed resistance movement, known as the OPM (Free Papua Organisation) was set up.

Most Papuan people wanted independence so the Indonesian military rigged the vote to ensure Papua became Indonesian. Just 1025 Papuan tribal leaders were picked out of a population of 1.5 million to vote — at gunpoint — on whether to join Indonesia or become independent. Not surprisingly they all voted in Indonesia’s favour. Since then, human rights groups estimate that at least 100,000 Papuans have been killed by the Indonesian military. Serious human rights abuses, such as murder, beatings, torture and rape, occur on a near daily basis.

West Papua’s vast natural resources, such as gold, copper and timber have been ruthlessly exploited by multinational corporations, such as the American mining giant Freeport, without any regard for the environment or the people whose villages have been displaced as a result of these activities. The corporations pay protection money’ to the Indonesian military to keep angry locals away from their operations.

Growing Up In Occupied Territory
When Fransiskus was growing up, his parents didn’t tell him about the Indonesian military or Papua’s history. “It was a forbidden issue” he says. His parents were scared that if he knew the truth he would join the resistance and put himself in danger. Once he started university, Fransiskus found out about what the Indonesian military was doing to his homeland. Without informing his parents, he started taking part in opposing the Indonesian military by raising awareness about human rights and environmental issues.

On December 1, 1989, a day Papuans mark as their unofficial independence day, he attended a celebration with 10,000 others, where a Papuan flag was illegally raised. Thirteen days later he was arrested and declared a subversive’. He was placed in a prison in Java Indonesia, along with other Papuan students and political prisoners from East Timor, which at that stage was also brutally occupied by the Indonesian military. Conditions in the prison were very bad. Papuan prisoners would disappear as often as the prison guards changed. Their families would never see them again.

Standing Up For Human Rights
Following his release from prison in 1997, Fransiskus continued to raise awareness around human rights and environmental issues as he did before his arrest. In 2001 Fransiskus and a friend were going to travel to Oxford University in Britain to study human rights. As they were about to leave his friend accidentally left some articles about West Papua in the back of a taxi. The taxi driver told the authorities and they were thrown in prison for five months without charge.

Indonesia’s government was using the post-9/11 climate as an excuse to label West Papuan human rights campaigners as terrorists’. With legal aid from a friend he sought political asylum in Australia and has since been granted permanent residence. In his new home of Adelaide he has joined up with other human rights activists to campaign for the rights of his people.

One day he dreams his homeland will finally be free.
This article was written as part of the Global Focus a collaborative project of Tearaway Magazine and the Global Education Centre. It was first published in Tearaway magazine and is reprinted here with their permission.

No more Hiroshimas! No more Nagasakis!

Thursday, September 22nd, 2005

Annie Boanas

“No more Hiroshimas! No more Nagasakis!”

This message was repeated over and over again during my recent two week trip to Japan. Julia Johnstone and I travelled to Nagasaki and Hiroshima for the World Conference against Atomic and Hydrogen Bombs. We attended as representatives of the Peace Foundation and Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom, during the 60th Anniversary of the bombings.

As a young person working for peace, there are definitely moments where I get frustrated, overwhelmed and cynical. This trip to Japan provided an opportunity for me to connect with thousands of other young people who are passionate about peace. This experience reignited my hope and inspiration.

I delivered a speech in front of 3000 people at an international youth rally in Hiroshima, where I had the opportunity to network with youth and hear stories of what others are doing for peace.

We visited the Peace Museums in both Hiroshima and Nagasaki and listened to the stories from Hibakusha (survivors of the bombing). The symbolism of floating beautiful lanterns, with messages of peace, down a river where sixty years ago dead bodies floated in their place…these experiences were very powerful and very emotional and reinforced my sense of individual responsibility as part of the younger generation, to recommit myself and inspire others to take action for peace.

Annually, the world spends US$1 trillion on military, less than 10% of this budget could eliminate poverty. Today 30, 000 nuclear weapons exist, each having 200,000 times the force of the bomb that destroyed Hiroshima. These weapons of mass destruction are ready to be used at the touch of a button.

It is crucial that young people get actively involved in these issues because it is us who carry the responsibility to help build a more peaceful world. Shed those feelings of complacency and realise you play a central role in creating a difference and you have the power to bring positive change.

The West Papuan Tragedy

Monday, August 1st, 2005

By Cameron Walker

In 1999 many New Zealanders felt disgusted as they watched news coverage of Indonesian soldiers and militia men brutally massacring East Timorese civilians as they attempted to vote in a referendum on independence.

The Colonial History of West Papua
Today a very similar situation is occurring in the Indonesian territory of West Papua. West Papua is the western half of the island of New Guinea. When the Dutch granted independence to Indonesia in 1949 they kept West Papua (as a colony to be granted independence at a later date) because the Papuan people were ethnically and linguistically different from the people of Indonesia. The Papuans are a Melanesian people, not Asian, and had expressed overwhelming opposition to becoming part of Indonesia. The Indonesian government wanted control of West Papua because it had an abundance of natural resources such as gold, copper, oil and timber.

West Papua’s Independence - and Invasion
On December 1, 1961 the Dutch formally ceded independence to West Papua. The Morning Star was to be the flag of the new nation. However, independence proved to be short lived as the following year Indonesia invaded West Papua. The United Nations intervened and promised Papuans a referendum on independence. This referendum, ironically termed the Act of Free Choice’ by the Indonesians, was not fair or democratic. The Indonesian military hand picked 1025 Papuan leaders, at gun point, who voted unanimously to join Indonesia. At the same time the UN mission received 179 petitions from Papuans calling for their nation to be freed and complaining of military repression, detention of political prisoners and other abuses by the Indonesian military.
papua sign
The Indonesian dictator Suharto then embarked on a campaign to Indonesianise’ West Papua and wipe out the native people’s culture. West Papua was renamed Irian Jaya and the people were banned from raising their flag. Thousands of trans-migrants arrived from Indonesia, and Papua’s natural resources were sold off to multinational corporations such as Shell and Freeport Mining.

Impact of “Indonesianising” policies on West Papua
These policies were enforced with brutality by the Indonesian Military. Officially 100,000 Papuans have been killed by the Indonesian military since the start of the Indonesian occupation. Some believe the number may even be as high as 800,000.

The Indonesian occupation has left the majority of Papuans destitute. According to the Governor of Papua, 74% of Papuans live in poverty. UNICEF estimates that Papua’s infant mortality rate is 117 per 1000, among the worst in the world. Multinational corporations take $500 million out of West Papua every year and Papuans have been made second class citizens to Indonesian trans-migrants and Western contractors.

The Indonesian military continues to abuse the people of Papua. In November 2001 they killed the pro-independence community leader Theys Eluay. In 2003 Indonesia’s Special Forces, Kopassus, launched a widespread military operation in the Central Highland town of Wamena. Around 1000 people were forced to flee from their homes and then could not access food or shelter. At least 16 villagers were killed by either the Indonesian military, starvation or exposure. One man, Yapenas Murib, died while under military arrest after being chained to a truck, by his neck, and dragged along the road.

Involvement of Multinational Corporations in West Papua
For many years some of the Western based multinational corporations operating in Papua have paid the Indonesian military to protect their installations. In 2003 the chief of the Indonesian military, General Sutarto admitted that 600 troops stationed near Freeport’s mine received direct allowances’ from the U.S. based company. In the late 1970’s a group of irate Papuans cut Freeport’s copper slurry pipe. In response, the Indonesian military cluster bombed villages, burned down churches, shot men, women and children and disemboweled their bodies. Pregnant women were pierced and torn open by soldier’s bayonets. Their unborn babies were then cut into halves.

Indonesian Militias in West Papua
In 2003 the infamous Indonesian militia leader, Eurico Guterres, set up a militia group in Papua. Guterres has been sentenced to 10 years in prison for his part in the 1999 militia campaign of terror in East Timor which left 1000 people dead. The Indonesian government has allowed Guterres to set up the militia as he awaits for his trial to be appealed. According to the human rights organization Elsham, Kopassus has built special training camps for the Muslim fundamentalist group Laskar Jihad. The Indonesian military used these exact same tactics in East Timor, where they trained and armed militias to terrorise the local people into submission.

Between August and November 2004, gunmen launched a series of attacks on villages in the Puncak Jaya regency which killed eight people, including a policeman and Church Minister. Fearing further attacks, 5000 people from 27 villages in the area then fled into the forests. As a result of this, another 15 people (mainly children) died of exposure.

New Zealand’s relationship to West Papua
For 24 long years New Zealand ignored the people of East Timor as they were being brutalized by the Indonesian military. New Zealand cannot ignore the human rights tragedy which is unfolding in West Papua, right on our doorstep in the Pacific.


  • 74% of Papuans live in Isolation and Poverty’(19 August 2004), Jakarta Post
  • Papua human rights probe mooted’ Australian Associated Press -November 23, 2004 Australian Associated Press
  • Militias Active in West Papua’ (March 2004) New Internationalist, volume 365, p8
  • Kingsnorth, Paul (2003) One No Many Yeses, A Journey to The Heart Of the Global Resistance Movement, London, Free Press
  • Osborne, Robin (1985) Indonesia’s Secret War, The Guerilla Struggle in Irian Jaya, Sydney, Allen and Uwin Australia
  • Ongoing Repression’, (Autumn 2003), Suara Demokrasi, p3
  • Justice Elusive’, (Autumn 2003), Suara Demokrasi, p4
  • Brundige, Elizabeth; King, Winter; Vahali, Priyneha; Vladeck, Stephen & Yuan, Xiang, (November 2003), Indonesian Human Rightds Abuses in West Papua: Application of the Law of Genocide to the History of Indonesian Control, Lowenstein International Human Rights Clinic Yale Law School

Life under the Taleban

Thursday, October 9th, 2003

Before escaping to New Zealand, AMINA LAFARAIE, and her family were forced to hide from the Taleban in the city of Kabul in Afghanistan. This is her story of her experience.

I was thirteen when we had to leave our home and hide. My heart was pounding heavily. My mother was pale and shaking, my sisters and brother crying. My father sat quietly in a corner.
“What if they come again?” Mum asked weeping.
Just a few minutes ago we could have lost my father. They would have taken him away and we would not, ever, see him again.
The soldiers were at the neighbour’s house. They were searching all homes. They wanted cars, men to send to battlefields and money.
This time, by some miracle and Almighty God’s protection, they missed this house. But the door might be knocked or broken anytime.

We had to escape.

In hiding…
I was sick but could not go to the hospital. Fortunately my aunt’s husband was a doctor. He came to check me three times a day.
It was 5:00 pm. I had a high fever and felt my entire body burning. I lay down in the old room.
Outside, it was grey and raining. As if the sky knew my situation and was shedding tears for me. Inside, three buckets were placed under the ceiling cracks from which water was seeping. The paint of the faded green walls had pealed off.
I looked at my father’s troubled face. He was forty-seven, but seemed years older. He was sitting beside me reading a book.
Tears glistened in Mum’s tired brown eyes as she placed ice towels on my forehead, hands and feet. I thought back to the day we had to come here.

City of the Dead People

The next day we woke up early. It was September 27, 1996 — three days after my thirteenth birthday.
We were listening to the radio. It did not start with the usual national anthem. We all knew what had happened.
Our beautiful city was now in the hands of strangers. They made it a prison for us.
Every woman was forced to wear the Burqa — covering herself from head to toe. No education or job for females. No music, television or any sort of entertainment for old or young.
After a few months the Kabul City became known as the City of the Dead People.

Hidden from the world
My parents, two sisters, brother and I had to live in this one room. During the war the windows had broken. Only thin plastic shielded us from the cold winter wind.
All day long we sat in this small room studying, reading storybooks, playing with each other, only occasionally glancing out the window. We could not even go out to the yard — the neighbours may see us and inform the Taliban.
It was even worse when a guest visited our relative. We had to sit in one spot for hours without moving around the room or talking. Only a curtain separated the living room from the room we used.
We did not like this place. We wanted to go home. We wanted our normal lives back. We had committed no crime. Why were we being tortured?
We planned to go back home, but then another tragedy happened.
The Taliban had gone to our house asking for my father. My uncle did not tell them of our whereabouts.
He was arrested. They imprisoned him in another city, hundreds of miles away from home, where we had no relatives or friends to visit him.
After this incident we had no choice. We had to stay hidden from the whole world. We could not let them know where we were. They would come and take my father away from us, forever.
The doorknob turned. My aunt’s husband was there for my check-up. He greeted me with a gentle smile, but the trouble and pain in his eyes and tightened face told us all he was worried.
I was lying in my deathbed. I was expected to close my eyes any minute and never have them open again.
“Will I ever enjoy the pleasure of freedom?” was a question recorded in my mind and played repeatedly…

I feel warm tears running down my cheek. My heart is aching as I am remembering that horrible time in my life.
The feeling is still strong. It was the most difficult time in my life. It is hard to forget — it is part of me and my identity. It makes me appreciate much more the new life in New Zealand I have begun.
My family and I are free and happy now. We have a future to look forward to. I leave the porch and enter the house. I will call my friend and have a long nice chat.

Check out her interview with Paul Zoubkov on Amina’s life in New Zealand, memories of Kabul and the recent war in Afghanistan.
This article was written as part of Global Focus a collaborative project of Tearaway Magazine and the Global Education Centre. It was first published in Tearaway magazine and is reprinted here with their permission

Wars as an act of…

Thursday, October 9th, 2003

Throughout the ages, people have waged violent wars to control the resources, lands and ideas of others. But colonisation comes in many forms and is not limited only to dictatorships or other oppressive regimes.

Over the last fifty years some Western nations have been guilty of overthrowing legitimate governments, assassinating world leaders, establishing economic blockades, supporting terror regimes and financing terror organisations.

For what reasons? The power struggle with the former Soviet Union (itself doing many of these things); control of foreign natural resources; and the acquisition of new markets with favourable conditions for home companies.

The cost? Countries and economies in ruins, millions dead or missing, many more injured, tortured or forced to flee their homes.

For some, war is a profitable business
Research and production of guns, mines, tanks, airplanes and other instruments of death is an $800 billion industry.

Those with an interest in making money apply constant pressure for softer gun control laws, increases in military spending, and positive representation in the media.

Governments looking to make a quick dollar have sold arms to already unstable regions, providing the final spark for conflict.

  • In 1998 the United Kingdom sold weapons to 30 of the 40 governments with the worst human rights records in the world
  • In Sudan, an AK-47 assault rifle can be traded for a chicken or a sack of grain
  • The USA has a military budget as large as the next top 10 countries combined

The ownership of media is becoming increasingly concentrated in the hands of multi-national corporations.
If media is owned and controlled by big businesses, it has to protect their interests. For this reason, coverage of war is often distorted, misrepresented and over-simplified.

  • Global media is owned by fewer and fewer companies. In 1982 there were 50 global media companies and now there are less than ten.
  • Major military defence companies own CBS and NBC, two of the largest US television networks.
  • One company, INL, owns most of New Zealand’s newspapers

This article was written as part of Global Focus a collaborative project of Tearaway Magazine and the Global Education Centre. It was first published in Tearaway magazine and is reprinted here with their permission

The cost of Poverty

Friday, August 29th, 2003

Mike Lamont, Graham Smout, Ryan McCarthy, Jayne Jones, Matt Galloway, Tialda Veldman, Callum Gay, Rowan Smith, Yadana Saw and Paul Zoubkov

“A large majority is consigned to suffering and despair in the interests of narrow sectors of privilege and power” — Noam Chomsky

  • Basic education for all would cost $6 billion a year
  • $8 billion is spent annually on cosmetics in the US alone
  • Installation of water and sanitation for all would cost $9 billion
  • $11 billion is spent annually on ice-cream in Europe
  • Basic healthcare and nutrition worldwide would cost $13 billion
  • $35 billion is spent each year on business entertainment in Japan
  • The total cost of eradicating poverty worldwide is estimated at around $80 billion
  • The world spends $800 billion a year on military alone. That’s ten times the needed amount!

OTen ways YOU can fight poverty

INFORM: By reading these pages, you are gathering information that will help you form an OPINION.

OPINION: The whole world is based on everyone having one of these. Make sure yours is well informed. TALK to other people and share your knowledge.

TALK: Share your ideas and concerns with other people — your friends, parents, teachers. Hearing what others say helps to EXPLORE an issue.

EXPLORE: Exploring can be about testing what you know, or what others say. You may encounter problems, solutions and more questions — enough to make you want to CHANGE something.

CHANGE: If the world needs fixing, start by changing yourself. You might stop buying certain products, food or clothes. Changing your habits is to CHALLENGE what you don’t like.

CHALLEGE: It’s difficult to stand up and care about something, but if you’ve reached this point then encourage yourself to go further. Try to find SOLUTIONS to poverty. Don’t give up.

SOLUTIONS: So far, everything you have done is a positive step that makes a difference. But what would solve some of the issues? You can be as imaginative as you like. Nothing is impossible. If you can see the connection to the issue you care about, keep up the pressure and ACTIVATE!

ACTIVATE: Live the world you wish for every day. There may be lots of bad things in the world, but you don’t have to contribute. Have PRIDE in your actions and thoughts.

PRIDE: Be proud of what you know and what you are doing. Others might find it scary or they might hassle you — just remember that doing good things is difficult and you are making a positive difference. If you are true to what you believe, then that will keep a SMILE on your face.

SMILE: Because you are making this world better.

If the world needs fixing, start by changing yourself.


Global Issues
New Internationalist
Taking IT Global

This article was written as part of Global Focus a collaborative project of Tearaway Magazine and the Global Education Centre. It was first published in Tearaway magazine and is reprinted here with their permission

Illustrator: Gavin Mouldey